Nasim Bakhshaee


  1. Multilayer CVD graphene electrodes using a transfer-free process for the next generation of optically transparent and MRI-compatible neural interfaces
    Nasim Bakhshaee; Merlin Palmar; Andrada Iulia Velea; Chiara Coletti; Sebastian Weingaertner; Frans Vos; Wouter A. Serdijn; Sten Vollebregt; Vasiliki Giagka;
    Microsystems & Nanoengineering,
    Volume 8, Issue 107, pp. 1-14, Sep 2022. DOI: 10.1038/s41378-022-00430-x
    Abstract: ... Multimodal platforms combining electrical neural recording and stimulation, optogenetics, optical imaging, and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are emerging as a promising platform to enhance the depth of characterization in neuroscientific research. Electrically conductive, optically transparent, and MRI-compatible electrodes can optimally combine all modalities. Graphene as a suitable electrode candidate material can be grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes and sandwiched between transparent biocompatible polymers. However, due to the high graphene growth temperature (≥ 900 °C) and the presence of polymers, fabrication is commonly based on a manual transfer process of pre-grown graphene sheets, which causes reliability issues. In this paper, we present CVD-based multilayer graphene electrodes fabricated using a wafer-scale transfer-free process for use in optically transparent and MRI-compatible neural interfaces. Our fabricated electrodes feature very low impedances which are comparable to those of noble metal electrodes of the same size and geometry. They also exhibit the highest charge storage capacity (CSC) reported to date among all previously fabricated CVD graphene electrodes. Our graphene electrodes did not reveal any photo-induced artifact during 10-Hz light pulse illumination. Additionally, we show here, for the first time, that CVD graphene electrodes do not cause any image artifact in a 3T MRI scanner. These results demonstrate that multilayer graphene electrodes are excellent candidates for the next generation of neural interfaces and can substitute the standard conventional metal electrodes. Our fabricated graphene electrodes enable multimodal neural recording, electrical and optogenetic stimulation, while allowing for optical imaging, as well as, artifact-free MRI studies.


  2. Investigation of the long-term adhesion and barrier properties of a PDMS-Parylene stack with PECVD ceramic interlayers for the conformal encapsulation of neural implants
    Nasim Bakhshaee; Ronald Dekker; Ole Holk; Ursa Tiringer; Peyman Taheri; Domonkos Horvath; Tibor Nanasi; István Ulbert; Wouter Serdijn; Vasiliki Giagka;
    In IEEE European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (EMPC),
    Online, September 2021.

  3. UV and IR laser-patterning for high-density thin-film neural interfaces
    Andrada Velea; Joshua Wilson; Anna Pak; Manuel Seckel; Sven Schmidt; Stefan Kosmider; Nasim Bakhshaee; Wouter Serdijn; Vasiliki Giagka;
    In IEEE European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (EMPC) 2021,
    Online, September 2021.

  4. PDMS to Parylene Adhesion Improvement for Encapsulating an Implantable Device
    Nasim Bakhshaee; R. Dekker; W.A. Serdijn; V. Giagka;
    In Proc. 42nd Int. Conf. of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (EMBC) 2020,
    Montreal, Canada, July 2020.

    Nasim Bakhshaee; Marta Kluba; Ronald Dekker; Wouter Serdijn; Vasiliki Giagka;
    In Book of Abstracts, 7th Dutch Biomedical Engineering Conf. (BME) 2019,
    Jan. 24-25 2019.

  6. Towards a Semi-Flexible Parylene-Based Platform Technology for Active Implantable Medical Devices
    Nasim Bakhshaee; Marta Kluba; Ronald Dekker; Wouter Serdijn; Vasiliki Giagka;
    In Book of Abstracts, 2019 International Winterschool on Bioelectronics Conference (BioEl 2019),
    Kirchberg, Tirol, Austria, 16-23 March 2019.

  7. Towards a semi-flexible parylene-based platform technology for active implantable medical devices
    Nasim Bakhshaee; M. Kluba; R. Dekker; W. Serdijn; V. Giagka;
    In Book of Abstracts, SAFE 2019,
    Delft, the Netherlands, July 4-5 2019.

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